Not Alone – The First Report of the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault
Late yesterday the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault released its first report entitled Not Alone. Here is the report’s executive summary and a link to the report.
Why We Need to Act
One in five women is sexually assaulted in college. Most often, it‘s by someone she knows – and also most often, she does not report what happened. Many survivors are left feeling isolated, ashamed or to blame. Although it happens less often, men, too, are victims of these crimes.
The President created the Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault to turn this tide.
As the name of our new website – NotAlone.gov – indicates, we are here to tell sexual assault survivors that they are not alone. And we‘re also here to help schools live up to their obligation to protect students from sexual violence.
Over the last three months, we have had a national conversation with thousands of people who care about this issue. Today, we offer our first set of action steps and recommendations.
1. Identifying the Problem: Campus Climate Surveys
The first step in solving a problem is to name it and know the extent of it – and a campus climate survey is the best way to do that. We are providing schools with a toolkit to conduct a survey – and we urge schools to show they‘re serious about the problem by conducting the survey next year. The Justice Department, too, will partner with Rutgers University‘s Center on Violence Against Women and Children to pilot, evaluate and further refine the survey – and at the end of this trial period, we will explore legislative or administrative options to require schools to conduct a survey in 2016.
2. Preventing Sexual Assault – and Engaging Men
Prevention programs can change attitudes, behavior – and the culture. In addition to identifying a number of promising prevention strategies that schools can undertake now, we are also researching new ideas and solutions. But one thing we know for sure: we need to engage men as allies in this cause. Most men are not perpetrators – and when we empower men to step in when someone‘s in trouble, they become an important part of the solution.
As the President and Vice President‘s new Public Service Announcement puts it: if she doesn‘t consent – or can‘t consent – it‘s a crime. And if you see it happening, help her, don‘t blame her, speak up. We are also providing schools with links and information about how they can implement their own bystander intervention programs on campus.
3. Effectively Responding When a Student Is Sexually Assaulted
When one of its students is sexually assaulted, a school needs to have all the pieces of a plan in place. And that should include:
Someone a survivor can talk to in confidence
While many victims of sexual assault are ready to file a formal (or even public) complaint against an alleged offender right away – many others want time and privacy to sort through their next steps. For some, having a confidential place to go can mean the difference between getting help and staying silent.
Today, we are providing schools with a model reporting and confidentiality protocol – which, at its heart, aims to give survivors more control over the process. Victims who want their school to fully investigate an incident must be taken seriously – and know where to report. But for those who aren‘t quite ready, they need to have – and know about – places to go for confidential advice and support.
That means a school should make it clear, up front, who on campus can maintain a victim‘s confidence and who can’t – so a victim can make an informed decision about where best to turn. A school‘s policy should also explain when it may need to override a confidentiality request (and pursue an alleged perpetrator) in order to help provide a safe campus for everyone. Our sample policy provides recommendations for how a school can strike that often difficult balance, while also being ever mindful of a survivor‘s well-being.
New guidance from the Department of Education also makes clear that on-campus counselors and advocates – like those who work or volunteer in sexual assault centers, victim advocacy offices, women‘s and health centers, as well as licensed and pastoral counselors – can talk to a survivor in confidence. In recent years, some schools have indicated that some of these counselors and advocates cannot maintain confidentiality. This new guidance clarifies that they can.
A comprehensive sexual misconduct policy
We are also providing a checklist for schools to use in drafting (or reevaluating) their own sexual misconduct policies. Although every school will need to tailor a policy to its own needs and circumstances, all schools should be sure to bring the key stakeholders – including students – to the table. Among other things, this checklist includes ideas a school could consider in deciding what is – or is not – consent to sexual activity. As we heard from many students, this can often be the essence of the matter – and a school community should work together to come up with a careful and considered understanding.
Trauma-informed training for school officials
Sexual assault is a unique crime: unlike other crimes, victims often blame themselves; the associated trauma can leave their memories fragmented; and insensitive or judgmental questions can compound a victim‘s distress. Starting this year, the Justice Department, through both its Center for Campus Public Safety and its Office on Violence Against Women, will develop trauma-informed training programs for school officials and campus and local law enforcement. The Department of Education‘s National Center on Safe and Supportive Learning Environments will do the same for campus health centers. This kind of training has multiple benefits: when survivors are treated with care and wisdom, they start trusting the system, and the strength of their accounts can better hold offenders accountable.
Better school disciplinary systems
Many sexual assault survivors are wary of their school‘s adjudication process – which can sometimes subject them to harsh and hurtful questioning (like about their prior sexual history) by students or staff unschooled in the dynamics of these crimes. Some schools are experimenting with new models – like having a single, trained investigator do the lion‘s share of the fact-finding – with very positive results. We need to learn more about these promising new ideas. And so starting this year, the Justice Department will begin assessing different models for investigating and adjudicating campus sexual assault cases with an eye toward identifying best practices.
The Department of Education‘s new guidance also urges some important improvements to many schools‘ current disciplinary processes: questions about the survivor‘s sexual history with anyone other than the alleged perpetrator should not be permitted; adjudicators should know that the mere fact of a previous consensual sexual relationship does not itself imply consent or preclude a finding of sexual violence; and the parties should not be allowed to personally cross-examine each other.
Partnerships with the community
Because students can be sexually assaulted at all hours of the day or night, emergency services should be available 24 hours a day, too. Other types of support can also be crucial – like longer-term therapies and advocates who can accompany survivors to medical and legal appointments. Many schools cannot themselves provide all these services, but in partnership with a local rape crisis center, they can. So, too, when both the college and the local police are simultaneously investigating a case (a criminal investigation does not relieve a school of its duty to itself investigate and respond), coordination can be crucial. So we are providing schools with a sample agreement they can use to partner with their local rape crisis center – and by June, we will provide a similar sample for forging a partnership with local law enforcement.
4. Increasing Transparency and Improving Enforcement
More transparency and information
The government is committed to making our enforcement efforts more transparent – and getting students and schools more resources to help bring an end to this violence. As part of this effort, we will post enforcement data on our new website – NotAlone.gov – and give students a roadmap for filing a complaint if they think their school has not lived up to its obligations.
Among many other things on the website, sexual assault survivors can also locate an array of services by typing in their zip codes, learn about their legal rights, see which colleges have had enforcement actions taken against them, get ”plain English“ definitions of some complicated legal terms and concepts; and find their states‘ privacy laws. Schools and advocates can access federal guidance, learn about relevant legislation, and review the best available evidence and research. We invite everyone to take a look.
Today, the Department of Education‘s Office for Civil Rights (OCR) is releasing a 52-point guidance document that answers many frequently asked questions about a student‘s rights, and a school‘s obligations, under Title IX. Among many other topics, the new guidance clarifies that Title IX protects all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity, immigration status, or whether they have a disability. It also makes clear that students who report sexual violence have a right to expect their school to take steps to protect and support them, including while a school investigation is pending. The guidance also clarifies that recent amendments to the Clery Act do not alter a school‘s responsibility under Title IX to respond to and prevent sexual violence.
OCR is also strengthening its enforcement procedures in a number of ways – by, for example, instituting time limits on negotiating voluntary resolution agreements and making clear that schools should provide survivors with interim relief (like changing housing or class schedules) pending the outcome of an OCR investigation. And OCR will be more visible on campus during its investigations, so students can help give OCR a fuller picture about what’s happening and how a school is responding.
The Departments of Education and Justice, which both enforce Title IX, have entered into an agreement to better coordinate their efforts – as have the two offices within the Department of Education charged with enforcing Title IX and the Clery Act.
This report is the first step in the Task Force‘s work. We will continue to work toward solutions, clarity, and better coordination. We will also review the various laws and regulations that address sexual violence for possible regulatory or statutory improvements, and seek new resources to enhance enforcement. Also, campus law enforcement officials have special expertise to offer – and they should be tapped to play a more central role. We will also consider how our recommendations apply to public elementary and secondary schools – and what more we can do to help there.
United States Department of Education Office for Civil Rights Questions and Answers on Title IX and Sexual Violence issued April 28, 2014.
United States Department of Education Office for Civil Rights Know Your Rights: Title IX Requires Your School to Address Sexual Violence issued on April 28,, 2014.[gview file=”https://www.title9.us/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Not-Alone-White-House-Task-Force-on-Sexual-Assault.pdf”]
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